In the 12 of November 2007, Intel Company introduced new processors, which were known as Penryn before. In a range of main novelties??Щ modifications there is a change-over on new type transistor usage. A month later, the 12 of December, in Moscow, Intel Company pass the presentation of new CPU. This arrangement was dated to the 60 years from the transistor invention except the description about 45 nm processor possibilities.
Main of us know that transistor is a part of any processor. Never the less 60 years ago only a few thought that this invention would be the main component of computer microprocessors. But let??Щs make an excursus to the history.
First patents for the principles of field transistor were presented in
In Bell Lab Company laboratories was created the first bipolar transistor by Wiliam Shokly, Jhon Bardin and Walter Bruttein. It creation was finished by the end of 1947 year. It was demonstrated December, 16 and December, 23 ??У officially to the world. In particular, it is the date of transistor birth. For this invention the scientists were awarded by Nobel Prize on physics in 1956.
Interesting, that in modern processors field MOS-transistor is used, no bipolar. But this is not surprise, bipolar transistor is not suitable for processors, and MOS-transistor, that is used in modern chips was developed in 1957.
New generation of transistors
In the 12 of November, 2007 Intel presented new processors officially, before Penryn known before as Penryn code name. Together with them was also presented the production of 45 nm technological process. First time Intel showed it more than a year back, showing the plate made in accordance with it norms with SRAM-memory. Time of CPU came today. Nevertheless, about new processors we will tell farther, and now a few words are about the new type of transistors, that was used for the issue of new chips.
Last 40 years at the ordinary field transistor as a dielectric dioxide of silicon (Sio2) is used. It influences the transistor??Щs work, protecting from the electrons??Щ loss. But swift diminishing of technologies of production which we can look for the last ten years, resulted in that this layer of dielectric became too small. It already is not capable to restrain electrons. It??Щs fact ??Ф today in 65 nm transistors of Intel the thickness of dielectric is only 1.2 nanometer, that it is 5 atomic layers!
If you constantly keep an eye on events in IT-sphere that, possibly, recollect as three and a half years ago the first Intel 90 nanometer processor has been presented. It was Pentium 4 on
With 65 nm technology all passed better ??Ф new transistors did not suffer so strong currents of loss. However transition on 45 nm production norms portended greater problems. Exactly it urged on a processor giant on transistors??Щ processing.
Ordinary field transistor (on the left) and transistor with a high-k dielectric (on the right).
Intel applied the so-called high-k dielectric (or metal with the high index of dielectric permeability). A basic component, used for it making, is hafnium. This infrequent metal allowed to increase the thickness of dielectric, considerably reducing the currents of loss. True, some complicated technology of it production ??Ф a dielectric is inflicted layers each with the thick only in 1 atom. In addition it is badly consonant with a standard breech-block from highly silicon. In the total a breech-block in new Intel transistor is made from a metal now.
What advantages are given by the new type of transistor in comparison with old, not counting the decline of currents of loss? You will be able to draw this information from the following sliding seat:
In the future Intel will use only new transistors. For example, SRAM-memory, made for 32 nm Tec process, was already shown. And in two years it is promised to show processors, executed on this technology.
While 45 nm tec process is already inculcated on the factories of D1D (Oregon, USA), Fab 32 (Arizona, USA). Next year Fab 28 (Kir'yat-gat, Israel) and Fab 11X will pass to it (New Mexico, USA). When it will happen the volume of output of 45 nm chips will be exceeded by the volume of 65 nm models. By the end of next year more than 70% microcircuits of Intel will be made on new Tec process. For some readers there can be a question of tangent main competitor Intel ??Ф to the company AMD. Actually while it is impossible to say much good about it. It is just completed a transition on 65 nm Tec process, although going to inculcate 45 nm norms already next year. Will turn out for it or not laid in an acceptable term, know in 6-10 months. But in spite of current difficulties it has all pre-conditions for it.
Almost simultaneously with Intel about development of transistor on the basis of high-k dielectric other no less prominent company IBM declared. Certainly, it will use these works for the issue of own processors on architecture of POWERPC. But since Apple gave up their use of mass application in desktop and mobile computers it did not win. And it will happen scarcely ??Ф a blue giant obviously positions it not in this segment.
But it we were distracted. A few years ago AMD became very closely to be friends with IBM. They even exchanged the commands of engineers in order to take experience for each other. On the current bargains of companies IBM will help AMD up to 2012. We suppose, now it will be not difficult to guess, why the second must "have" time. In one of our past news we wrote, that AMD already secured the help of blue giant when time to pass on 32 nm Tec Process will come.
But it we were distracted. A few years back AMD became very closely to be friends with IBM. They even exchanged the commands of engineers in order to take experience for each other. On the current bargains of companies IBM will help AMD up to 2012. We suppose, now it will be not difficult to guess, why the second must "have" time. In one of our past news we wrote, that AMD already secured the help of blue giant when time to pass on 32 nm Tec Process will come.
So, and Intel, and AMD pass to the transistors of new type. But here is an enough burning question ??Ф that will be farther? Clearly, that to 2011 year, hurrying is not necessary especially, but approximately this year both companies will want to change Tec Process. In theory transition to 22 nm yet possible norms, but to more thin technologies... while unknown. That, will hope that development of computer industry thereon will not stop and new methods to grow a fast-acting will be found.